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If you are asked to give a title or heading to the passage, keep in mind the following clues : a title is hidden either in the beginning or in the ending lines of the passage. The physical side of the education is neglected, and there are practically no facilities for. Social life or corporate activities of any kind. Naturally in such narrow grooves, 'there is little opportunity for training the character of the student and developing his personality. In this connection, it will be wise to look up to America, the most practical country in the world.

America possesses democracy in education. Education is not a monopoly of the idle rich, of the privilege solely of the bloated and arrogant middle class, but the birthright of every American child. In Europe primary education is free and compulsory, but higher education is reserved only for a few. No attempt is made by American Educationists to dole out education according to 11 social position.

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It is possible for student to start in the common school and right up to the university. Education in America is frankly utilitarian as it is not either in England or in India. Metaphysics and Latin and Greek occupy a very subordinate place in the curriculum. The almost miraculous success of American business all over the world is due to the strictly utilitarian ideals of American education. In America businessmen generously give away large sums of money. It is not an idealistic generosity which prompts them to do so. But the realization that their education has helped them to make money and so they must give money for giving similar education to others.

No American would even dream of encouraging a- type of education without direct social utility. A look into an American university calendar would show that the courses of study offered range from dish-washing to metaphysics. But dish-washing is given more importance than Aristotle. The difference between American and Indian education is that Indian educationists aim at providing merely glorified clerks while Americans want self-respecting citizens who shall be taught to make an independent living in every walk of life.

Our unemployed are consoled by being told that "man shall not live by bread alone? The truth is that man shall not live by culture alone. He wants bread first. That is recognized by American universities. So in these two ways we can learn much from America. We must make education cheap within reach of all who are capable of it and desire it and we must make it utilitarian.

A man who can do the job of dish-washing really efficiently is a better citizen than a man who writes Babu Piche Lal's English, and murders Shakespeare. In America, examinations have been completely eliminated. Instead of holding examinations and promoting those who receive a certain percentage of marks, the entire group is promoted. The more slowly developing child is given individual attention, and the brilliant child is not retarded. The gifted child is given more work of a creative nature, and is even encouraged to dream, but is never placed in a class of children older than himself, where he may grow self-conscious and lose confidence.

The aim is to give instructions in subjects of course with an eye only to the student's success in the examination. The two short comings are- no opportunity for training the character of student and to develop his personality as there are no corporate activities. The courses of study in America offer a range from dishwashing to metaphysics, but dishwashing is given more importance. Education without direct social utility is discouraged.

Indian education aims at producing merely glorified clerks. Our unemployed are consoled by being told that "man shall not live by bread alone! They recognize that man needs bread first. What are those? The gifted child is given more work of creative nature, is encouraged to dream, never placed in a class of children older than himself, where he may grow self-conscious and lose confidence.

Education is birth right of every child. It should be utilitarian. Education should produce self-respecting 13 citizens capable of making an independent citizen. Eliminate exams. Not idealistic generosity-realizes that education helps make money so they must give to others. As religious people believing in God, we are all aware of the influence of prayer in our individual lives. It is true our temples, gurdwaras, churches and mosques reverberate with the prayers of the devout on festive occasions and even in the course of daily life.

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When individuals face dire situations, often they are led into prayer, their faith thus opens for them a source of comfort and encouragement in their hour of need. But how does this nation, as a collective entity, exercise its faith in prayer? It may be recalled that during the freedom struggle and subsequently after Independence, the Father of the Nation, used to lead the people in prayer on matters affecting its destiny.

The men of different faiths used to take part in such meetings, which gave them a sense of purpose and also a sense of solidarity as people sharing one destiny. Since the Mahatma fell to the bullets of an assassin, no one else probably came forward to provide leadership to an exercise of prayer at the national level. No doubt, people of all faiths had organised prayers at their places of worship in the aftermath of national tragedies like the Gujarat earthquake or the Orissa cyclone.

The hijacking of an Indian plane with its passengers to Kandahar in the recent past had moved this nation to pray. The whole nation, again, had taken to prayer en masse on two other earlier occasions-when Amitabh Bachchan fell seriously ill and also when Mother Teresa was on bed. As food is necessary for the body, prayer is necessary for the soul. I have not a shadow of doubt that the strife and quarrels with which our atmosphere is so full today are due to the absence of the spirit of true prayer.

True prayer never goes unanswered.

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According to Vasudevan, secretary of the Rajghat Samadhi Samiti, all-religion prayer meetings are held every Friday at Rajghat from 4 p. It is said that the act of prayer changes people and situations. There is a general impression that prayer is an act of seeking favours from God for selfish ends. It is as if all praying people are only interested in taking their shopping lists to their maker!

Far from it. The very act of praying teaches one to empathise with those who suffer. It broadens one's vision and outlook. It builds up one's character by imparting a sense of responsibility towards other people and situations. The latest example of a praying nation comes from the United States, which is often labeled as too materialistic. Speaking at the National Prayer Breakfast at Washington in the second week of February, President George Bush praised Americans of all faiths for turning to prayer in the wake of the September 11 terrorist attacks.

He said he had spent much time "on bended knee" since terrorists attacked the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, killing more than people. Regardless of the religious affiliations, people in the affected areas showed an exemplary sense of tolerance in the hour of tragedy. All differences of religion, ethnicity, race and language were forgotten as volunteers got busy assuaging the pain and sorrow felt by the victims. The American example has several lessons for India which is also a pluralistic society.

It has demonstrated that differences of religion and ethnicity need not 15 stand in the way of the nation unitedly facing all its challenges. If it is true that all religious faiths teach tolerance, humility and the value of helping neighbours, then the religious leaders of this nation could also engender unity and oneness of purpose by coming together periodically to pray for the nation.

And when they focus on the fact that all people, regardless of their differences, share one common destiny, there could be greater communal harmony. Such a consciousness ought to pave the way for peace in society. Kutty a Answer the following questions : i When do people generally pray? How does the act of praying influence mind and Personality? Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow: 12 Marks Three worrisome aspects of national life demand drastic measures as early as possible.

These are: exploding population, rampant corruption and an administrative system which is among the worst in the world. Ever since Independence, these three problems have been pushed under the carpet because they require tough decisions. Even as the country's population has crossed the one billion mark, our leaders continue to twiddle their thumbs. The socalled national population policy, announced with much fanfare recently, is an unmitigated farce. After talking about a dozen concerns pertaining to the health of women and children, it again puts "emphasis on voluntariness in the area of family planning.

But experience of the last five decades shows that Indians population problem is of such a 17 2. There is urgent need for a centrally-sponsored nation-wide scheme of incentives and disincentives-a carrot-and-stick policy. Needless to say, an incentive-disincentive scheme would initially cover the organised sector, which means employees of the Central and state governments as well as the public and private corporate sectors.

The incentivesdisincentives would entail monetary rewards, promotions and concessions relating to the education of children, housing and transportation. The details are not difficult to work out and have been written about ad nauseam. Corruption has been corroding the very innards of the Indian nation.

First, there is need for an attitudinal change. We should eschew the despicable habit of throwing up our hands in despair and lamenting that nothing can be done about corruption. Because of the innate avariciousness of human nature, it may be difficult to eradicate corruption, but it can definitely be reduced. For this, it is equally important to remember that we must attack corruption at the highest echelons of power because, like liquid, it flows from top to bottom.

The Central Vigilance Commission is there to check corruption among bureaucrats. But what about corruption among ministers and parliamentarians who occupy a higher position than bureaucrats in the hierarchy of power? It is here that the Lokpal comes in, an ombudsman-like institution independent of the government which would also cover the office of the Prime Minister.

There is also need to strike at the root cause of corruption by breaking the corrupt politician-businessman nexus. Politicians take black money from businessmen in order to fight elections. If there were state funding of political parties, this need would, to some extent be obviated. Considering that the quinquennial expense of elections in India is estimated around Rs crore, it, means that there is an annual need of just Rs crore for state funding of political parties. For a country of India's size this is a manageable amount. Several advanced democracies, the USA and Germany among them, have state funding of political parties.

An atrocious administrative system is not only retarding the country's economic progress but has also become the average citizen's nightmare. At the time of Independence our leaders blindfoldedly adopted the colonial type of administration left behind by the British and imposed it on the nation. In the last five decades, despite a constant clamour, there has not been a single piece of administrative reform, with the result that the situation has been going from bad to worse. Three administrative reforms should be introduced immediately.

One, no file should be required to move more than three levels before a decision is taken. Two, there should be 'a moratorium on government recruitment till the size of the bureaucracy is reduced by 30 per cent over 10 years. Three, the foolproof security of service in government jobs should be rescinded. But, considering our pusillanimous leadership, who will bell the cat? Aruind Bhandari Answer the following questions briefly in your own words as far as possible : i What are the three worrisome issues faced by the present day India?

What is the author's suggestion in this regard? What is the role of Lokpal in this context? What measure can be taken to reduce this? Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow: 12 Marks The advance of knowledge is often a mixed blessing. Over the past 60 years, nuclear physics has been one obvious example of this truth.

Over the next 60 years, genetics may be another. Today, enterprising firms offer, for a fee, to tell you about your genes. They claim that this knowledge will help you live longer and better. You might, for example, have extra check-ups to detect early signs of the diseases that you are most at risk of contracting, or you could alter your diet to reduce that risk. If your chances of a long lifespan are not good, you might buy more life insurance, or even retire early to have enough time to do what you always wanted to do.

Selecting our children raises more profound ethical problems. This is not new. In developed countries, tile routine testing of older pregnant women, combined with the availability of abortion, has significantly reduced the incidence of conditions like Down's syndrome. In some regions of India and China where couples are anxious to have a son, selective abortion has been the ultimate form of sexism, and has been practiced to such an extent that a generation is coming of age in which males face a shortage of female partners.

Selection of children need not involve abortion. For several years, some couples at risk of passing a genetic disease on to their 20 children have used in vitro fertilisation, producing several embryos that can be tested for the faulty gene and implanting in the woman's uterus only those without it. Now couples are using this technique to avoid passing on genes that imply a significantly elevated risk of developing certain forms of cancer. Since everyone carries some adverse genes, there is no clear line between selecting against a child with above-average risks of contracting a disease and selecting for a child with unusually rosy health prospects.

Thus, genetic selection will inevitably move towards genetic enhancement. For many parents, nothing is more important than giving their child the best possible start in life. They buy expensive toys to maximise their child's learning potential and spend much more on private schools or after school tutoring in the hope that he or she will excel in the tests that determine entry to elite universities. It may not be long before we can identify genes that improve the odds of success in this quest.

In the case of sex selection, it is easy to see that couples who independently choose the best for their own child can produce an outcome that makes all their children worse off than they would have been if no one could select the sex of their child. Something similar could happen with other forms of genetic selection. Since above-average height correlates with above-average income, and there is clearly a genetic component to height, it is not fanciful to imagine couples choosing to have taller children. The outcome could be a genetic arms race that leads to taller and taller children, with significant environmental costs in the additional consumption required to fuel larger human beings.

The most alarming implication of this mode of genetic selection, however, is that only the rich will be able to afford it. The gap between rich and poor, already a challenge to our ideas of social justice, will become a chasm that mere equality of opportunity will be powerless to bridge. That is not a future that any of us should approve.

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The first option would require coercion, and since countries will not accept that others should gain a competitive edge, an international agreement to forego the benefits that genetic enhancement can bring. The second option, universal access, would require an unprecedented level of social assistance for the poor, and extraordinarily difficult decisions about what to subsidise. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow: 12 Marks 1. Our ancient sages and forefathers had taught us the importance of three qualities as essential requisites to preserve our culture eternally.

They relate to our intellectual, emotional and physical aspects involving moment to moment transactions. They are fearlessness, non-attachment and non-violence. The most important among the three is fearlessness. Whenever our culture or our values are threatened, we should have the courage to stand against the inimical forces. The conflict between truth and untruth or right and wrong, is a phenomenon that has baffled people right from the beginning of creation. Many times, we feel that wickedness is over-running righteousness.

But we should realise that this is temporary. Ultimately, truth alone will win. This is the law of nature. The main weapon in the battle for the victory of Dharma Righteousness is fearlessness. This is essentially a state of mind. To develop fearlessness, we have to shed our ego that often clouds our mind and intellect. First of all we must develop a firm conviction in the principles and beliefs, we value.

We should then remain ready to sacrifice everything that we hold dear to us. Some people merely sacrifice their possessions, that too mainly for the sake of name and fame. That is not true sacrifice. Giving up one's ego with a spirit surrender or submission to the unseen power of Almighty to attain fearlessness is true sacrifice. We understand submission as mere obedience to our superiors or others in authority, forgetting our basic responsibility that we should resist any attempt from any quarters to impose wrong practices and unrighteous acts.

Fearlessness can be attained only if another equally important quality like non-attachment can be cultivated. This calls for discrimination Viveka. The ability to distinguish between the permanent and the temporary is called Viveka. There is no attachment to any person or a thing, be it a family or property. But this value comes only when we seek for higher levels of knowledge 23 5.

Supplementing both these qualities of fearlessness and nonattachment is the ability to remain non-violent under all circumstances. Non-violence is not limited to the physical body. One should practice non-violence in speech and thought too. It calls for immense will power. Jains as a community led by their monks have shown clearly the path of non-violence in day-to-day life. When we combine fearlessness and non-attachment with nonviolence, we unleash forces which can bring down even powerful armies and mighty empires.

Take the case of the United States of America, which had a fearless leader like Abraham Lincoln, who galvanised the urges of the people against slavery for freedom. Mahatma Gandhi inspired us for freedom from foreign rule by inspiring us through fearlessness, non-attachment and non-violence. However, epics teach us that it is impossible to correct men like Duryodhana. In such cases, use of force is not only necessary, but it also becomes mandatory. The physical punishments parents mete out to their children for a positive purpose also cannot be considered as violence as long as no love is lost in the relationship.

Narsimha Rao-HT Answer the following questions briefly : 9 Marks i What are the three essential requisites according to the passage to preserve our culture eternally? Of these, which is the most important? Is violence always wrong? Memory is what defines our lives, our personalities, our very existence. The dictionary defines memory as the faculty by which things are recalled or kept in the mind, the recovery of one's knowledge by mental effort. But for most of us memory is just the ability to recall facts and figures, the faces of people we know and the recollection of things in the past.

But memory is far more complex than this. Without memory, as in the case of amnesia, the personality changes and is distorted without any point of reference. Memory is" of vital importance in defining our personalities as it enriches our lives with complicated personal remembrances. Without this we turn into walking zombies. As people grow older they often suffer memory loss in some form or other and diseases like Aizheimer's can obliterate memory centres of the brain, making the sufferer into a different, less coherent and irrational personality.

Science has discovered that there are many different types of memory and we can lose one kind and still retain others. Human beings have a long term memory and a working memory. Working memory is the ability to recall telephone numbers, addresses and relevant information such as those needed in our daily lives. Many elderly people seem to lose this form of memory while still retaining their long term memory. Even perfectly normal people may have only one part of the brain active under stress or illness.

In addition to long term memory and working memory, there is also recent memory, semantic memory the memory of facts and episodic memory the memory of something which actually happened , explicit and implicit memory and source memory, which enables us to recall from where we learnt certain facts. A loss of source memory seems to affect most people at sometime or the other. Without memory we become different people. It is what most elderly people fear, but it need not be so.

Unless illness is the cause for memory loss, participating fully in life can make a world of difference. Scientists, musicians, writers, doctors, architects, engineers and artists, all use their brains and memory 25 centres to maximum effect. In fact anyone who is absorbed in some sort of work or project, or hobby whereby the mind is stimulated and used, can keep the memory in good working condition. Reading and paying attention to what you are reading, learning poetry by heart and taking a deep interest in the world around you, stimulates memory. We must also learn to breathe deeply.

If the brain does not receive sufficient oxygen for the process of cerebration, hallucination and negative psychic reactions occur. Yoga tells us that for good mental health and emotional stability, we need to be good, deep breathers. Without memory we are nothing. Our closest family members are nothing to us, we are alone, drifting in a world of which we appear to know nothing. The preservation, dignity, empathy, love depend almost entirely on the preservation of memory. How is it different from the layman's interpretation of memory?

How does the absence of it affect our personalities? Does this mean they lose memory completely? Give at least two points. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow: 12 Marks 1. Sarah Riley works in the heart of London. Her working day is filled with meetings, phone calls, project deadlines and all the other responsibilities of corporate life. She is good at her job and his steadily progressed over the last six years to her current position as marketing consultant for a large communications and marketing firm.

It is a demanding job but well paid and Ms. Riley loves it. Yet for the past year and a half, she has been leaving her job every Wednesday evening to drive to the coastal town of Brighton, where she spends the rest of the week and part of the weekend working as a junior barber in a city centre salon. She does not need the extra money nor is she planning a career change.

The fact is that like a small but growing number of workers, Ms. Riley has simply decided that two careers are better than one.

Dual careerists also sometimes called sunlighters are not contractors who work for several clients or moonlighters who take on extra-jobs for money. Instead, they are people who are actively committed to more than one career. Riley is now completing her NVQ Level 2 barber training, "I have always been interested in men's hairdressing and I find it quite creative. I can do that and one day I just decided to do it. Initially I enrolled in an evening course, which gave me a very basic grounding and a chance to see if I could actually do it.

When I realised I could and that I enjoyed it, I decided to train properly. City and Guild recently conducted a forward-looking analysis of the trend and concluded that increased life expectancy and pension under-funding will lead to longer working lives, while the rise of particularly on-line 27 6. This creates an encouraging climate for dual careerists. The study predicts that the 1. Like Ms. Riley, the majority of dual careerists work parttime. But executive assistant Nicola. Wright, 27, who has a full time job as a P. She decided to train as a dance teacher in the evenings and week-ends and has spent the past six years establishing her own dance school in Portsmouth, along the Coast from Brighton, while holding down her original job.

For her, top notch organisational and time management skills and the goodwill of her employers were fundamental in helping her realise her ambition. However, taking on two careers can require almost superhuman determination and efficiency. Apart from the training there are administrative chores like completing taxreturns which many people with more than one employer are required to do. Wright admits. But despite their punishing schedules both Ms. Riley and Ms. Wright maintain that being able to do creative jobs, makes them appreciate their mainstream jobs even more.

As Ms. Riley explains, "I have always wanted to live by the sea and have a country life-style. In Brighton I live within walking distance of my job. I can go home for lunch and feed the dogs and on Sundays I can go for country walks. Both jobs really complement each other". Peter Nolan, Director of the Future of Work Programme, funded by the Economic and Social Research Council ESRC , points out that the notion that people are becoming less interested in holding down a career in favour of quality family life is a myth. There is in fact, he argues, a revival in the desire for a career.

Parttime work no longer conforms to the stereotype of being temporary, insecure of a stopgap.

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Often it is a secure, longlasting career and changes in employment law over the years mean that the benefits and rights make it comparable to full time work. It seems that doubling your careers could also double your freedom. What is the nature of her job? Mention some dual careerists. Sarah Riley been going every Wednesday evening and why?

Wright about dual careers? My father gets a faraway look in his eyes that's unmistakable. As he looks towards the horizon and his eyes seek out the bright flashes of snow-capped peaks, we all know what he's thinking. Mountain tops have always had that magnetic effect on him. As I grew up I inherited some of my father's restlessness.

I know many people think there must be some compulsion for the son of Edmund Hillary to climb mountains. But for me it's simpler than that. I think families are like factories : some manufacture lawyers 29 3. The Hillary family is a limited production mountaineering establishment. Today at the age of 48, I am a determined mountain man : love to climb them, love to dream about them. I have been on more than 30 mountaineering expeditions, from the Himalayas to the Antarctic. And yes I have climbed Everest - twice. I treasure the same things that drew my father to climbing - great feeling of friendship and trust among people who work together, sense of pleasure and excitement, especially in dangerous places where your life depends upon making the right call.

I guess I am luckier than most because I can fall back on all that my father has taught me. One devastating day in this advice saved my life. Just below the summit of the mountain known as K2 or the "savage mountain' of the Himalayas - there is a steep ice channel called - "The Bottleneck'. I was among a party of eight climbers heading for the summit, with just meters left to climb. Perched there, meters above sea-level and looking east along the northern edge of the Karakoram Mountains to the Tibetan Plateau, I noticed curls of ominous cloud began to move in suddenly and quickly with great force.

As the weather worsened, I became very concerned. I stopped. Something didn't feel right. At that moment I clearly heard my father's voice. Go down. Stick to your guns.

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Then, from above me, I heard another voice - a woman's. Use the red rope". Alison Hargreaves, a fellow climber, was encouraging me to join her. Not for you. Was that my father's voice again? The unsettled feeling in me grew stronger. Finally I told Jeff Lakes, my climbing partner, that I was going down. He too was feeling unsure, but decided to go on ahead. As I headed down, I looked back at Jeff a couple of times, until a thick, threatening cloud blocked the view.

Soon, the same fastmoving cloud would engulf the summit and plunge me into an isolated world of terror. Don't be afraid to make your own decisions. Don't be afraid to stand alone. That was my father's voice. But with fear tapping upon my shoulders, I was caught in the frightening situation of the rising storm. The flanks of the mountain were out of control and so, perhaps, was I.

Fear makes you careful. Fear makes you good. Fear, my father told me, is not something you manage. So I seized on what I could control : a well-clipped descender and a taut rope. For hours I continued to go down rope after plunging rope - every rope one closer to the ice ledger at Camp When I awoke in my tent the next morning, it was silent, sunny, still.

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I alone had successfully descended from the summit pyramid of K2 that night. The seven above were dead. Life in a famous family has its advantages and disadvantages. Lunch with Indira Gandhi or a trip to the North Pole with Neil Armstrong are one - although a rather extraordinary - side of the coin. The other can be a battle with identity and independence. When I am 80 years old myself, I know I will more than likely still be greeted with, "Wait a minute, you're Ed Hillary's son! On the basis of your reading of the above passage answer these questions.

What does the author mean by this? How did it help the author? Millions of men and women, thousands of leaders, a succession of social, religious and political movement-it is impossible to draw up a full list of the makers of India even on a limited year basis. All that can be attempted here is to present a few representative names, some of them inspirational still. All of them remind us of the course we have traversed, and how we have come to where we are.

Let us make a start with the best ever Indian. Implied in Toynbee's assessment was the deduction that Gandhi was not just an Indian phenomenon. No doubt India derived unequalled benefit from his leadership. By fitting the freedom struggle into the framework of a philosophy of justice and fairness, he achieved for India a stature that was denied to other countries, including China, that won independence around the same time. That the stature was quickly lost by the governments that came to power on the labours of Gandhi is a different matter. The decline of India did not amount to any repudiation of Gandhi.

Indeed, it was seen as a consequence of the betrayal of Gandhi by his supposed followers. The true measure of his impact on history is that it is not dependent on the successful completion of his mission in India. The others who soldiered on with him in the epic war of independence — Jawaharlal Nehru and Sardar Patel included - will be remembered for what they did in India and for India; they were essentially Indian personalities.

So, for that matter, was Jinnah whose life's work boiled down to the creation of a state on what rapidly proved to be a dubious premise. Gandhi soared above them all because he dealt essentially with ideas and theories relevant to all mankind. Like Buddhism, Gandhism lost ground in the land out of which it evolved. But, 32 like Buddhism, it has been embraced by distant peoples who see in its tenets the promise of a meaningful life.

It was as though Gandhi's involvement with India was merely incidental to his larger involvement with what he persistently called Truth. Raja Rao put it pithily when he wrote: "For Gandhi India was only the symbol of a universal principle. All countries were, for Gandhi, India. He will be greater than not just Stalin and Hitler - two characters who are rather too one-dimensional to be contrasted with the vastness that was Gandhi. Gandhi personifies the greatness of the time-honoured proposition that Love is superior to Hatred, that Good is better than Evil.

Great personages of history who based their "greatness" on Hatred and Evil, on conquests and oppression, have all gone under. The Byzantines and the Ottomans, the Mongols and the Mughals, the British and the Spanish once strode the earth as if they owned it. Today only Britain and Spain survive, and that as second-class entities confined to Europe, Alexander, the first king in history to be called "The Great," died a lonely death as a disillusioned and defeated man at the incredible age of Nothing of his greatness remains today even "in his native Macedonia which is now but an appendage to the horrible tragedy of Yugoslavia.

Greatness built on murder and acquisition passes. Greatness rising out of compassion and service abides. The Buddha abides. Christ abides. The great unknown thinkers of the Upanishads abide. Gandhi carried that tradition through to our times. He might have been let down by the "Gandhians" who, armed with political power, have turned India into a mess.

That too is parallel to the way quarrelling Buddhists, exploitative Christians and latelyintolerant Hindus have been letting down their preceptors. But their smallness does not detract from the true greatness of the sages who opened the path of enlightenment for them and for the world. They abide because they gave without taking.

They were not men of arms. They were men of ideas. Parithranaya sadhunam, they appear from age to age. They appear to teach us that the world can be conquered, not with force, but with ideas. It was the lesson of this Millennium too - taught by the man of the Millennium. Which one is much appreciated and admired? Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follows : 9 Marks Development journalism is the backbone for a developing economy. Heritage publishing is the citadel on which the transition from developing nation to developed country rests.

India is in such a transition stage. According to the Prime Minister this goal can be achieved by The effort for making India a developed nation are fully geared up on so many fronts be it highway laying, technology upgradation, IT, telecom, aeronautics and transportation. But to create informed public opinion on the issues pertaining to development initiatives for a meaningful debate is what development communication should cater to. This holds particular relevance for people's participation in the transition phase of taking India from a developing mode to a developed economic power.

Information dissemination has several shades, ramifications, delivery mechanism and intended spinoffs. There is plenty of news in the country through the electronic, print and internet media. There are lot of programmes and columns dedicated to current affairs and latest developments in various fields.

The 21 journals brought out by 2. The Yojana group of journals are an effective two way linkage between the policy makers and the beneficiaries on development initiatives across the board. Mahalanobis, found a unique farm development project taking shape in the region. Nehru immediately wanted dissemination of such information and that is how the Kurukshetra journals were born. Ajkal in Hindi and Urdu is touching its 60'" year with a revered literary tradition. Employment News is probably the largest circulated single newspaper in India and that too belonging to the government.

It brings hopes and aspirations as well as career guidance to millions of young people all over the country. Added to this is the range of books produced by the Division under the 'Builders of Modern India' series, 'Cultural Leaders of India', Gandhiana including multimedia CD and e- book, biographies and books on art, history, culture and heritage. That makes the Publications Division a unique repository of India heritage in the annals of which one can trace speaches of Presidents and Prime Minister of country and great classics including 'Poverty and Un-British Rule' by the legendary Dadabhai Nauroji, ' ' by Tarachand.

As long as Publications Division stands aloft holding the Indian heritage in its mighty chest, the jewel in the crown will shine as a beacon light. Is India a developing or a developed country according to this passage? Publication Division? Name any one of its great publications? Give any one specific example. Read the following steps for making clear and concise notes quickly : Step 1Step 2- Read the passage to get a gist of the passage, to know what it is about, i. Read carefully, underlining or mentally making a note of the main ideas it deals with. Add the sub-points which supplement the main points.

There is no need to give example especially if there are too many. How do I present my notes? Do not write complete sentences instead use brief, clear phrases. Make points with the use of symbols an abbreviations, use proper indentation. What is the format that I can use? You can use different kinds of formats depending on the theme of the passage. It could be serial or sequential such as flow charts, piecharts, etc. You should also use some abbreviations and contraction which are easily recognizable. Sub Heading 1. Sub Heading 2.

Sub Heading 3. However, this freedom can be easily abused. Stories about people often attract far more public attention than political events. Though we may enjoy reading about the lives of others, it is extremely doubtful whether we would equally enjoy reading about ourselves.

Acting on the contention that facts are sacred, reporters can cause untold sufferings to individuals by publishing details about their private lives.

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Newspapers exert such tremendous influence that they can not only bring about major changes to the lives of ordinary people but can even overthrow a government. The story of a poor family that acquired fame and fortune overnight, dramatically illustrates the power of the Press. The family lived in Aberdeen, a small town of 25, inhabitants in South Dakota. As the parents had five children, life was a perpetual struggle against poverty. They were expecting their sixth child and were faced with even more pressing economic problems. If they had only one more child the fact would have passed unnoticed.

They would have continued to struggle against economic odds and would have lived in obscurity. But they suddenly became the parents of quintuplets, four girls and a boy, an event which radically changed their lives. The day after the birth of the five children, an aeroplane arrived in Aberdeen bringing sixty reporters and photographers. The news was of national importance, for the couple had become the parents of the only quintuplets in America. The rise to fame was swift. Television cameras and newspapers carried the news to everyone in the country. Newspapers and magazines offered the family huge sums for the exclusive rights to publish their photographs.

Gifts poured in not only from unknown people, but from baby 38 food and soap manufacturers who wished to advertise their products. Reporters kept pressing for interviews so laywers had to be employed to act as the spokesmen of the family at press conferences.

The event brought serious changes to the town itself. Plans were announced to build a huge new highway as Aberdeen was now likely to attract thousands of tourists. Sign posts erected on the outskirts of the town directed tourists not to Aberdeen, but to 'Quint-City U. While the five babies were still quietly sleeping in oxygen tents in a hospital nursery, their parents were paying the price for fame. It would never again be possible for them to lead normal lives. They had become victims of commercialisation, for their names had acquired a market value. The town itself received so much attention that almost every one of the inhabitants was affected to a greater or leis degree.

Use a format you consider appropriate. Supply a suitable title. Chances of Abuse of Freedom of Press 1. Story of Aberdeen fam. Dakota ii pop. Conclusion 4. At times not only governments can be affected but even the lives of ordinary people. One such example is of an Aberdeen couple in S.

They became rich and famous, received costly gifts and lot of publicity all at the cost of their privacy. The city was renamed as Quint-City, a museum and highway was built. Ultimately not only the family, but the whole city also paid a heavy price for commercialisation. This unfinished part of his experiment was perhaps even more difficult to achieve than the achievement of political freedom. In the political struggle, the fight was against a foreign power and all one could do, was either join it or wish it success and give it their moral support.

In establishing the social order of his pattern there was a likely possibility of a conflict arising between groups and classes of our own people. Experience shows that man values his possessions even more than his life because in the former he sees the means for perpetuation and survival of his descendants even after his body is reduced to ashes. A new order cannot be established without radically changing the mind and attitude of men towards property and at some stage or the other, the 'haves', have to yield place to the 'have-nots'. We have seen in our time, attempts to achieve a kind of egalitarian society and the picture of it after it was achieved.

But this was done by and large, through the use of physical force. The root cause of class conflict is possessiveness or the acquisitive instinct. So long as the ideal that is to be achieved is one of securing maximum material satisfaction possessiveness is neither suppressed nor eliminated but grows on what it feeds. Nor does it cease to be such—it is possessiveness, still, whether it is confined to only a few or is shared by many.

If egalitarianism is to endure, it has to be based not on the possession of the maximum material goods by a few or by all but on voluntary, enlightened renunciation of those goods, which cannot be shared by others or can be enjoyed only at the expense of others. This calls for substitution of spiritual values for purely material ones. The paradise of material satisfaction that is sometimes equated with progress these days neither spells peace nor progress.

Gandhi's wk. Social order-diff. Egalitarianism - based 4. The achievement of political freedom was easy because it was against aforeign power and everyone gave moral support to it. In establishing the social order of his pattern there was a possibility of a conflict arising between groups and classes of our own people. Moreover, a new order cannot be established without radically changing the mind and attitude of men towards property.

Take boots. Earlier, climbers used heavy leather shoes with soles that were hobnailed into the uppers. An hour before the start of the expedition, they needed to be waxed to make them waterproof. No wax meant instant frostbite. And if the boots were left outside the tent, they would be frozen, making it extremely difficult to slip the feet in. The only solution was to sleep with the boots inside the sleeping bag.

Today's boots come lined with the magic of plastic. They don't freeze and are lightweight. The One Sport Everest is extremely warm, with a lining of Alveolite insulation and another layer of Alveolite in the built-in over-gaiter. And they weigh less than a kilo. The sleeping bag is the key to survival in the Death Zone of 43 26, ft and above. Earlier, the bags were stuffed with goose feathers. Today, they sidestep the down-versus-synthetic conundrum by swinging both ways.

While feathers are layered next to the body for warmth, the synthetic, quick-drying Primaloft, lies on the outside for its moisture-shedding properties. The old faithful ice-axe was wooden with a steel head, sturdy, but heavy and undimensional. Not any more. The latest ice-axes are made of titanium and are feather-weight. They also have curvatures and teeth that allow a climber to be suspended, in mid air with only the ice-axe for support. Similarly, pitons and ice screws have transformed-all are titanium. Another area where a revolution has been quietly at work is oxygen cylinders.

If one doesn't believe in Reinhold Messner's code of bagging the summit by "fair means", take heart. The old days, when cylinders weighed 10 kg, are over. The state-of-the-art Russian-built oxygen systems consist of a stiff plastic mask, a regulator and an orange steel Keviar gas canister. They weigh less than 3 kg. Not only are they lighter, but they also have more capacity. In fact, everything has changed.

The tents are lighter, sturdier and can breathe. The mittens with fleece inners assure frost-free security. Even the food is precooked and dehydrated. All one needs to do is add water and heat. Camp cookers too have become lighter, smaller, and more efficient. A steel-mesh bull's eye in the middle of the ultraefficient LP gas burner keeps the flame roaring when the wind is doing likewise.

But the handiest feature is its integrated starter. No more the temperamental matches. Just open the valve, flick the index finger, and Houston, we have ignition. Technology can keep you in a better frame of mind, but as Captain M. Kohli, who led the Indian team in , says, "In the end, you still need to climb that mountain. Often these phrases are used without consciously attaching any values to them, but they have underlying them an attitude of hostility towards Nature and Nature's creatures, a view point which seems to assume.

Nature as an enemy that needs to be vanquished. Alternatively, Nature seen merely as a 'resource' to be 'exploited' take the maximum out of it, regardless of what this does to natural processes audio other creatures which depend on these processes It is this attitude which sees fellow humans too as a resource to be exploited, or other human communities as enemies to be conquered. There is a growing back of sensitivity and respect for our fellow creatures.

This attitude is being drilled into a child by social forces, which can only be countered by environmental education. Yet, sadly, in most cases this is not done. What is done is talk about the food web and the energy cycles and ecological balance and how removal of any elements disrupts the whole system, and how this can affect human beings too What this approach lacks is the essential interaction with Nature and with other humans.

Indeed in many environmental activities the opposite takes place. A classic example of this is making of a herbarium, of even worse, and insect collection, as common in both formal and non formal education in India. A child is often encouraged to pluck leaves and flowers and run after butterflies with a net, and is part of a large group of children similarly marauding a patch of nature within it.